I. WORKS CITED OR BIBLIOGRAPHY
Most research papers include a Works Cited or Bibliography section at the end: a list of books and other published material used in writing the paper. The Works Cited or Bibliography section serves two purposes:
It shows what research was done for the paper.
It suggests to interested readers possible sources for further study.
Generally, Works Cited sections reflect works quoted in the text, while Bibliography, more broadly, includes all works read for the paper.
The citation suggestions made here are based on the format established by the Modern Language Association (MLA) with whose permission the following has been made available. Students should be aware that other formats exist and may be required by other schools or individual instructors.
MLA Style has three major features. First, all sources cited in a paper are listed in the Works Cited, which is located at the end of the paper (see detailed instructions below). Second, material borrowed from another source is documented within the text of the paper by the use of Parenthetical Documentation (See section on "Parenthetical Documentation".) Third, numbered footnotes or endnotes are only used to present supplementary information such as: (1) commentary or explanation that the text cannot accommodate and (2) bibliographical notes that contain several source citations.
RULES FOR WRITING WORKS CITED or BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Alphabetize all entries according to the first word of each entry. Do not consider A, An, or The when alphabetizing.
- If the first word is identical in two entries, alphabetize those entries by the first letter that differentiates the two.
- Follow the style sheet carefully for order of names and punctuation.
- Single space within an entry, and double space the entire list between entries.
(1) Print, Audio, Film and Video Media Citations
When citing information from print, audio, film, and video provide the following general categories of information. Start each entry at the margin. If the entry goes beyond one line, indent the next lines five spaces or use the Tab key or hanging indent if using a word processor.
- Name of author, or editor (if author is unknown) followed by a period.
- Portions of entire works are followed by a period and enclosed in quotation mark.
chapter poem episode of a TV program article essay lecture song short story
- Title of a complete work (underlined) followed by a period.
book magazine TV program long poem newspaper work of art play journal record/CD album pamphlet film musical composition legal case ballet name of ship or aircraft
- City of publication followed by a colon.
- Publisher followed by a comma.
- Date of publication (day first, then month and year) followed by a period except if page numbers are to be listed. When pages are listed, separate date and pages by a colon.
- Volume number, issue number , page number(s) followed by a period.
ONE AUTHOR Forester, C. S. The Barbary Pirates. New
York: Random House, 1993.
They Went to College. New York:
Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1992.
THREE OR MORE AUTHORS Campbell, Angus, Philip Converse and
Donald Stokes. The American Voter.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.
IN TRANSLATION Dostoevski, Feodor. Crime and
Punishment. Trans. Jessie Coulson.
New York: Norton, 1984.
ANTHOLOGY SELECTION Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret less familiar or subject reference book "Political Parties." Compton"s
ANTHOLOGY Gunn, Giles, ed. Literature and Religion.
New York: Harper, 1971.
Snow." American Literature. Ed.
Edward J. Gordon. Boston: Ginn and
Co., 1967: 191-94.
ONE CHAPTER Campbell, John E. "New Power for
Peace." The Atomic Story. New York:
Henry Holt and Company, 1991:
no author given
Mitman, Carl W. "Reynolds, Edwin."
Dictionary of American Biography.
New York: Charles Scribner"s Sons,
1993, VIII: 517-518.
Encyclopedia. 1991 ed.
Trainer, Isaac. N. "Religious Directives
in Medical Ethics." Encyclopedia of
Bioethics. Ed. Watten T. Reich.
Vol. 3. New York: Free Press, 1988.
Aiken, Conrad. "Silent Snow, Secret
less familiar or subject reference book
"Political Parties." Compton"s
no author given "Infant Mortality Down; Race Disparity no author given
Brody, Jane E. "Multiple Cancers Termed
on Increase." New York Times
10 Oct. 1976: sec. A: 17.
Widens." Washington Post 12 Mar.
1993: sec. A: 12.
Cohen, Hennig. "Melville Isn"t for the
Masses." Saturday Review 16 Aug.
"An Anglo-Chicano Lexicon." Time 4 July
no author given
Accident Facts. Chicago: National Safety
no author given
"Infant Mortality Down; Race Disparity
no author given
RADIO or TV PROGRAM "The Case for Capital Punishment."
Dateline NBC. NBC. WDIV, Detroit.
1 December 1997.
Murder, She Wrote. CBS. WJBK, Detroit.
22 May 1988.
12 May 1988.
RECORDING Bon Jovi, Jon. Slippery When Wet. With
Dave Bryan, Richie Sambora, Alec
John Such, Tico Torves, and Jon Bon
Jovi. Polygram Records, 830264-4 MI,
FILMSTRIP or VIDEO Prison and Prison Reform. Prentice Hall
All the President"s Men. Videocassette.
Robert Redford. CBS. Video, 1979.
(2) ELECTRONIC MEDIA
When citing information from CD-ROMs, online databases, and computer networks, provide the following general categories of information using a hanging indentation:
- Name of author, editor (if author is unknown) followed by a period.
- Title of poem, short story, or article within a database followed by a period and enclosed in quotation marks. Title of posting to discussion list or forum (copied from subject line) followed by a period and enclosed in quotation marks.
- Title of book, database, periodical or site (underlined) followed by a period.
- Name of editor, compiler.
- Version number, volume number, issue number.
- Date of electronic publication, update, or posting (day first, then month and year) followed by a period.
- Number range or total number of pages, paragraphs, or sections, if they are numbered.
- Name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the web site followed by a period.
- Date of access.
- URL in angle brackets followed by a period or, for a subscription service, the URL of the service"s main page (if known) or the keyword assigned by the service.
(This model represents an abridged form of the current MLA requirements; for more detailed citations of electronic media, see the MLA Handbook, or consult the MLA web site at <http://www.mla.org.style/sources.htm>) or the Grosse Pointe Public Schools Library Media Center web site <http://www.gpschools.org/library/recommended.htm>).
CD DATABASE WEBSITES "Detroit Regional Yacht-Racing
ELECTRONIC ENCYCLOPEDIA Ardaugh, John. "France." Online posting.
Encyclopedia Americana Online.
version 2.9. 2000. Grolier. 5 May gpschools.schoolwires.net/site/default.aspx?domainid=60
ONLINE DATABASES Rosenmann, Larry. "Water Watch."
Conservationist April 1997: 13.
Cannon, Carl M. "U.S. Plans Cleanup of
Waters." Baltimore Sun 19 Feb. 1998:
1A+. SIRS, Researcher.
McLaughlin, Abraham. "EPA Floats
New Program To Save America"s
Rivers." The Christian Science Monitor
5 March 1998: 3. NewsBank. 10 May,
Smith, Jack. "Family history and
multicultural study." Multicultural
Education. Volume 6, 1998: Wilson
Select. 10 May, 2000
"Marshall, Thurgood." Current Biography,
1954. Wilson Biographies. 10 May,
Association Listings." 8 May 1996.
22 September 1998
"Preventing Urban Water Pollution."
City of Topeka Department of Public
Works. Internet. 3 June 1998
"Margaret (Eleanor) Atwood." DISCovering
Authors. version 2.0. Farmington Hills,
Michigan: Gale Research, 1996.
Brode, Mary Elizabeth. "Ireland Travel
Guide" Email to Ryan Coffey
20 September 1998.
"Geographic Health Recommendations:
Western Europe." Center for Disease
Control and Prevention. 30 July 1998.
22 September 1998
"Detroit Regional Yacht-Racing
Sample WORKS CITED (Bibliography)
"An Anglo-Chicano Lexicon." Time. 4 July 1969: 18.
Brody, Jane E. "Multiple Cancers Termed on Increase." New
York Times. 10 Oct. 1976: sec. A: 17.
Bronte, Emily. Collected Poems. Ed. Joseph Schmidt. London:
Oxford UP, 1981. U. of California Internet Library.
12 Oct. 1995. <http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/>.
Guggenheim Museum. 6 December , 1997
Havemann, Ernest, and Patricia West. They Went to College.
New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1952.
Satchell, Michael. "Taking Back the Land That Once was So
Pure." U.S. News & World Report. 4 May 1998:
v. 124 no.17. First Search, Wilson Select.
The titles in the English Language Arts Title Search are examples of learning resources that support English language arts topics and units for Grades 6 to12. Educators are advised to choose selections from the major integrated resources that relate directly to these topics and units.
The filters used to select English language arts topics and units are:
- CAN – Canadian Content and/or Author
- CORE – Core Resource (e.g., major integrated resource – MIR)
- FNMI – First Nations, Métis, and Inuit
- O/P – Out of Print
- ROVER – Recommended Online Video Education Resources
- SK – Saskatchewan Content and/or Author
- WNCP – Western and Northern Canadian Protocol
The Grades 6 to 9 English language arts title search includes titles from the “Core” and “Additional” resource lists.
The Grades 10 to 12 (10, 20, 30) English language arts title search includes titles from the “Core” and “Additional” resource lists, the existing bibliographies, the selective listing, and the learning resources materials updates.
For instructional, assessment, and evaluation purposes, teachers should choose resources and selections from the respective English language arts core and additional resources or alternative resources that have not been suggested at other grade levels and that pose comparable challenge to the students. (For example: The Hunger Games is a recommended resource to support the Grade 10 level and should not be taught at the Grade 8 level.)