Daniel Pipes Greater Syria The History Of An Ambition Essay

Syria’s History

     The Syrian Civil War
     Twentieth Century to the Present
     Byzantine to Ottoman Empires
     Ancient History

Syria’s History: The Syrian Civil War

The People Want: A Radical Exploration of the Arab Uprising
Gilbert Achcar
ISBN-13: 9780520274976 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780520280519 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9780520956544
University of California Press, 2013

Middle East Authoritarianisms: Governance, Contestation, and Regime Resilience in Syria and Iran
Steven Heydemann, Reinoud Leenders, editors
ISBN-13: 9780804783019 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780804784351
Stanford University Press, 2013

Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad
David W. Lesch
ISBN-13: 9780300197228 (paper)
Yale University Press, 2013

Adaptable Autocrats: Regime Power in Egypt and Syria
Joshua Stacher
ISBN-13: 9780804780629 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780804780636 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9780804782098
Stanford University Press, 2012

Syria’s History: Twentieth Century to the Present

Syria: Society, Culture, and Polity
Richard T. Antoun, Donald Quataert, editors
ISBN-10: 0791407136 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791407134 (cloth)
State University of New York Press, 1991

Syria’s Peasantry, the Descendants of Its Lesser Rural Notables, and Their Politics
Hanna Batatu
ISBN-10: 0691002541 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691002545 (cloth)
Princeton University Press, 1999

Syrian Episodes: Sons, Fathers, and an Anthropologist in Aleppo
John Borneman
ISBN-13: 9780691128870 (cloth)
Princeton University Press, 2007

Constitutions in a Nonconstitutional World: Arab Basic Laws and the Prospects for Accountable Government
Nathan J. Brown
ISBN-10: 0791451577 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0791451585 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780791451571 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791451588 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2001

Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair
Adeed Dawisha
ISBN-10: 0691102732 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0691122725 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691102733 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691122724 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2002

The Claims of Culture at Empire's End: Syria and Lebanon under French Rule
Jennifer M. Dueck
ISBN-13: 9780197264478 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 2010

Social Constructions of Nationalism in the Middle East
Fatma Muge Gocek, editor
ISBN-10: 0791451976 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0791451984 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780791451977 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791451984 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2002

Business Networks in Syria: The Political Economy of Authoritarian Resilience
Bassam Haddad
ISBN-13: 9780804773324 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780804785068 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9780804778411
Stanford University Press, 2011

Authoritarianism in Syria: Institutions and Social Conflict, 1946-1970
Steven Heydemann
ISBN-10: 0801429323 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780801429323 (cloth)
Cornell University Press, 1999

Ashes of Hama: The Muslim Brotherhood in Syria
Raphael Lefevre
ISBN-13: 9780199330621 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 2013

The New Lion of Damascus: Bashar al-Asad and Modern Syria
David W. Lesch
ISBN-10: 0300109911 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780300109917 (cloth)
Yale University Press, 2005

Religion and State in Syria: The Sunni Ulama from Coup to Revolution
Thomas Pierret
ISBN-13: 9781107609907 (paper)
Cambridge University Press, 2013

The Great Syrian Revolt and the Rise of Arab Nationalism
Michael Provence
ISBN-10: 0292706359 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0292706804 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780292706354 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780292706804 (paper)
University of Texas Press, 2005

A New Old Damascus: Authenticity and Distinction in Urban Syria
Christa Salamandra
ISBN-10: 0253344670 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0253217229 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780253344670 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780253217226 (paper)
Indiana University Press, 2004

Preserving the Old City of Damascus
Faedah M. Totah
ISBN-13: 9780815633495 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780815652625
Syracuse University Press, 2014

Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class
Keith David Watenpaugh
ISBN-10: 0691121699 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691121697 (cloth)
Princeton University Press, 2006

Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria
Lisa Wedeen
ISBN-10: 0226877876 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0226877884 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780226877877 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780226877884 (paper)
University of Chicago Press, 1999

Asad’s Legacy: Syria in Transition
Eyal Zisser
ISBN-10: 0814796974 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780814796979 (cloth)
New York University Press, 2001

Syria’s History: Byzantine to Ottoman Empires

White Banners: Contention in ‘Abbasid Syria, 750-880
Paul M. Cobb
ISBN-10: 0791448797 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0791448800 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780791448793 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791448809 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2001

Divided Loyalties: Nationalism and Mass Politics in Syria at the Close of the Empire
James L. Gelvin
ISBN-10: 0520210700 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520210707 (paper)
University of California Press, 1999

Urban Notables and Arab Nationalism: The Politics of Damascus 1860-1920
Philip S. Khoury
ISBN-10: 0521533236 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780521533232 (paper)
Cambridge University Press, 2003

Nomads and Settlers in Syria and Jordan, 1800–1980
Norman N. Lewis
ISBN-13: 9780521103275 (paper)
Cambridge University Press, 2009

The Nature of the Early Ottoman State
Heath W. Lowry
ISBN-10: 0791456366 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780791456361 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2003

The Kin Who Count: Family and Society in Ottoman Aleppo, 1770-1840
Margaret L. Meriwether
ISBN-13: 9780292752245 (paper)
University of Texas Press, 1999

Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State: Evolving Identities, Competing Loyalties, and Shifting Boundaries
Hakan Ozoglu
ISBN-10: 0791459934 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791459935 (cloth)
State University of New York Press, 2004

The Barber of Damascus: Nouveau Literacy in the Eighteenth-Century Ottoman Levant
Dana Sajdi
ISBN-13: 9780804785327 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780804788281
Stanford University Press, 2013

In the House of the Law: Gender and Islamic Law in Ottoman Syria and Palestine
Judith Tucker
ISBN-10: 0520224744 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520224742 (paper)
University of California Press, 1998

Syria’s History: Ancient History

The Archaeology of Syria
Peter M. M. G. Akkermans, Glenn M. Schwartz
ISBN-10: 052179666 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780521796668 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 2004

Ancient Syria: A Three Thousand Year History
Trevor Bryce
ISBN-13: 9780199646678 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, April 2014

Roman Syria and the Near East
Kevin Butcher
ISBN-10: 0892367156 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780892367153 (cloth)
Getty Publications, 2003

Wandering, Begging Monks: Spiritual Authority and the Promotion of Monasticism in Late Antiquity
Daniel Caner
ISBN-10: 0520233247 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780520233249 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780520928503
University of California Press, 2002

Qusayr 'Amra: Art and the Umayyad Elite in Late Antique Syria
Garth Fowden
ISBN-10: 0520236653 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780520236653 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780520929609
University of California Press, 2004

Europe and the Islamic World: A History
John Tolan, Henry Laurens, Gilles Veinstein
ISBN-13: 9780691147055 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9781400844753
Princeton University Press, 2012

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Syria’s Art, Literature, and Language

The Pages of Day and Night
Adonis ('Ali Ahmad Sa'id), translated by Samuel Hazo
ISBN-10: 0810160811 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780810160811 (paper)
Northwestern University Press, 2000

Passage to Dusk
Rashid al-Daif
ISBN-10: 0292705077 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780292705074 (paper)
University of Texas Press, distributed for UT Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2001

Opening the Gates: An Anthology of Arab Feminist Writing (Second Edition)
Margot Badran, Miriam Cooke, editors
ISBN-10: 0253205778 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780253205773 (paper)
Indiana University Press, 2004

Kurdish-English Dictionary
Michael L. Chyet, with selected etymologies by Martin Schwartz
ISBN-10: 0300091524 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780300091526 (cloth)
Yale University Press, 2003

Dissident Syria: Making Oppositional Arts Official
Miriam Cooke
ISBN-13: 9780822340164 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780822340355 (paper)
Duke University Press, 2007

A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic with Audio CD
Mark W. Cowell
ISBN-10: 1589010515 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9781589010512 (paper)
Georgetown University Press, 2005

Islamic Art and Architecture, 650-1250
Richard Ettinghausen, Oleg Grabar, Marilyn Jenkins-Madina
ISBN-10: 0300088698 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300088694 (paper)
Yale University Press, 2003

Extremities: Painting Empire in Post-Revolutionary France
Darcy Grimaldo Grigsby
ISBN-10: 0300088876 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780300088878 (cloth)
Yale University Press, 2002

Native Tongue, Stranger Talk
Michelle Hartman
ISBN-13: 9780815633563 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780815652694
Syracuse University Press, 2014

Whatever Happened to Antara? And Other Stories
Walid Ikhlassi, translated by Asmahan Sallah and Chris Ellery
ISBN-10: 0292702825 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780292702820 (paper)
University of Texas Press, distributed for UT Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004

Raqqa Revisited: Ceramics of Ayyubid Syria
Marilyn Jenkins-Madina, contributions by Aysin Yoltar-Yildirim and Dylan T. Smith
ISBN-10: 0300111436 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780300111439 (cloth)
Yale University Press, 2006

Experimental Arabic Novel: The Postcolonial Literary Modernism in the Levant
Stefan G. Meyer
ISBN-10: 0791447332 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0791447340 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780791447338 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791447345 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2000

Eastern Arabic with MP3 Files
Frank A Rice, Majed F. Sa’id
ISBN-10: 1589010523 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9781589010529 (paper)
Georgetown University Press, 2005

Among the Jasmine Trees: Music and Modernity in Contemporary Syria
Jonathan H. Shannon
ISBN-10: 0819567981 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780819567987 (cloth)
Wesleyan University Press, 2006

The Poetics of Islamic Legitimacy: Myth, Gender, and Ceremony in the Classical Arabic Code
Suzanne Pinckney Stetkevych
ISBN-10: 0253341191 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0253215366 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780253341198 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780253215369 (paper)
Indiana University Press, 2002

A Dictionary of Syrian Arabic: English-Arabic
Karl Stowasser
ISBN-10: 1589011058 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9781589011052 (paper)
Georgetown University Press, 2004

Folktales from Syria
Samir Tahhan, editor, translated and introduction by Andrea Rugh
ISBN-10: 0292706308 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780292706309 (paper)
University of Texas Press, distributed for UT Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2004

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Syria’s Regional & International Relations

Dialogues in Arab Politics: Negotiations in Regional Order
Michael Barnett
ISBN-10: 0231109180 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0231109199 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780231109185 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780231109192 (paper)
Columbia University Press, 1998

Democratization and Women’s Grassroots Movements
Jill M. Bystydziensk, Joti Sekhon, editors
ISBN-10: 0253334454 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0253212790 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780253334459 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780253212795 (paper)
Indiana University Press, 1999

The Israeli-Syrian Peace Talks: 1991–96 and Beyond
Helena Cobban
ISBN-13: 9781878379986 (paper)
United States Institute of Peace Press, 2000

Arab-Israeli Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric Wars
Anthony H. Cordesman
ISBN-13: 9780804759670 (paper)
Stanford University Press, 2008

Western Imperialism in the Middle East, 1914-1958
D. K. Fieldhouse
ISBN-10: 0199287376 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780199287376 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 2006

The Middle East in International Relations: Power, Politics and Ideology
Fred Halliday
ISBN-10: 0521597412 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780521597418 (paper)
Cambridge University Press, 2005

Contested Frontiers in the Syria-Lebanon-Israel Region: Cartography, Sovereignty, and Conflict
Asher Kaufman
ISBN-13: 9781421411675 (cloth)
Johns Hopkins University Press and Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2013

Resurrecting Empire: Western Footprints and America’s Perilous Path in the Middle East
Rashid Khalidi
ISBN-10: 0807002348 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0807002356 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780807002346 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780807002353 (paper)
Beacon Press, 2005

Why Syria Goes to War: Thirty Years of Confrontation
Fred H. Lawson
ISBN-10: 0801423732 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780801423734 (cloth)
Cornell University Press, 1996

Inheriting Syria: Bashar's Trial by Fire
Flynt Leverett
ISBN-10: 0815752040 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780815752042 (cloth)
Brookings Institution Press, 2005

Syria and Israel: From War to Peacemaking
Moshe Ma'oz
ISBN-10: 0198280181 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780198280187 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 1995

Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition
Daniel Pipes
ISBN-10: 0195060229 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780195060225 (paper)
Oxford University Press, 1992

Arabs at War, Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991
Kenneth M. Pollack 
ISBN-10: 0803237332 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0803287836 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780803237339 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780803287839 (paper)
University of Nebraska Press, 1991

The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations
Itamar Rabinovich
ISBN-10: 0691010234 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691010236 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9781400822652
Princeton University Press, 1999

Waging Peace: Israel and the Arabs, 1948-2003
Itamar Rabinovich
ISBN-10: 0691119821 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691119823 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2004

Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader
Barry Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin
ISBN-10: 0195176596 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780195176599 (paper)
Oxford University Press, 2002

Cooperating Rivals: The Riparian Politics of the Jordan River Basin
Jeffrey K. Sosland
ISBN-13: 9780791472019 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791472026 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2007

Syria and the Palestinians: The Clash of Nationalisms
Ghada Hashem Talhami
ISBN-10: 0813020638 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780813020631 (cloth)
University Press of Florida, 2001

Identity and Foreign Policy in the Middle East
Shibley Telhami
ISBN-10: 080143940X (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0801487455 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780801439407 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780801487453 (paper)
Cornell University Press, 2002

The Islamists are Coming: Who They Really Are
Robin Wright, editor
ISBN-13: 9781601271341 (paper)
United States Institute of Peace Press, 2012

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Syrian Occupation and Influence in Lebanon

The International Law of Occupation
Eyal Benvenisti
ISBN-10: 0691121303 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691121307 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2004

The Middle East: The Changing Strategic Environment
F. Stephen Larrabee
ISBN-13: 9780833039507 (paper)
RAND Corporation, 2006

Syrian Intervention in Lebanon
Naomi Joy Weinberger
ISBN-10: 0195040104 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780195040104 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 1986

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Lebanon’s History

     The Lebanese Civil War

Lebanon’s History: General

Militant Women of a Fragile Nation
Malek Abisaab
ISBN-13: 9780815632122 (cloth)
Syracuse University Press, 2009

The Long Peace: Ottoman Lebanon, 1861-1920
Engin Akarli
ISBN-10: 0520080149 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780520080140 (cloth)
University of California Press, 1993

The Phoenicians and the West: Politics, Colonies and Trade
Maria Eugenia Aubet, Translated by Mary Turton
ISBN-10: 0521791618 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780521791618 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 2001

The Lebanese Army: A National Institution in a Divided Society
Oren Barak
ISBN-13: 9780791493458 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791493465 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9780791493632
State University of New York Press, 2009

Urban Unrest in the Middle East: A Comparative Study of Informal Networks in Egypt, Iran, and Lebanon
Guilain Denoeux
ISBN-13: 9780791415245 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 1993

Echoes of Violence: Letters from a War Reporter
Carolin Emcke
ISBN-13: 9780691129037 (cloth)
Princeton University Press, 2007

Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon,1945-1958
Irene Gendzier 
ISBN-10: 0231140118 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780231140119 (paper)
Columbia University Press, 2006

Facing Human Capital Challenges of the 21st Century: Education and Labor Market Initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates
Gabriella Gonzalez, Lynn A. Karoly, Louay Constant, Hanine Salem, Charles A. Goldman
ISBN-13: 9780833045164 (paper)
RAND Corporation, 2008

Hellenistic Phoenicia
John D. Grainger
ISBN-10: 0198147708 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780198147701 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 1992

Fin de Siecle Beirut: The Making of an Ottoman Provincial Capital
Jens Hanssen
ISBN-10: 0199281637 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780199281633 (cloth)
Oxford University Press, 2005

Islamic Imperialism: A History
Efraim Karsh
ISBN-10: 0300106033 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780300106039 (cloth)
Yale University Press, 2006

Samir Kassir
ISBN-13: 9780520256682 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780520271265 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9780520947177
University of California Press, 2010

Inventing Home: Emigration, Gender, and the Middle Class in Lebanon, 1870-1920
Akram Fouad Khater
ISBN-10: 0520227409 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520227408 (paper)
University of California Press, 2001

Groupthink or Deadlock: When Do Leaders Learn from Their Advisors?
Paul A. Kowert
ISBN-13: 9780791452493 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780791452509 (paper)
State University of New York Press, 2002

The Culture of Sectarianism: Community, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon
Ussama Makdisi
ISBN-10: 0520218469 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520218468 (paper)
University of California Press, 2000

The Lebanese Connection: Corruption, Civil War, and the International Drug Traffic
Jonathan V. Marshall
ISBN-13: 9780804781312 (cloth)
Stanford University Press, 2012

Murder, Mayhem, Pillage, and Plunder: The History of the Lebanon in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Mikhayil Mishaqa, translated by Wheeler M. Thackston Jr.
ISBN-10: 0887067123 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780887067129 (cloth)
State University of New York Press, 1988

Democracy and Cultural Diversity
Michael O'Neill, Dennis Austin, editors
ISBN-10: 0199290008 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780199290000 (paper)
Oxford University Press, 2000

Ancient Lebanon: Monuments Past and Present
M. J. Strazzulla
ISBN-10: 8881621428 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9788881621422 (paper)
Getty Publications, 2006

The Shiites of Lebanon under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1788
Stefan Winter
ISBN-13: 9780521765848 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9780511686368
Cambridge University Press, 2010

Lebanon’s History: The Lebanese Civil War

International Change and the Stability of Multiethnic States: Yugoslavia, Lebanon, and Crises of Governance
Badredine Arfi
ISBN-10: 0253344883 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780253344885 (cloth)
Indiana University Press, 2005

The New American Interventionism: Lessons From Successes and Failures; Essays from Political Science Quarterly
Demetrios James Caraley
ISBN-13: 9780231118491 (paper)
Columbia University Press, 1999

Pax Syriana: Elite Politics in Postwar Lebanon
Rola el-Husseini
ISBN-13: 9780815633044 (cloth)
Syracuse University Press, 2012

War and Memory in Lebanon
Sune Haugbolle
ISBN-13: 9780521199025 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 2010

Architects of Intervention: The United States, the Third World, and the Cold War, 1946-1962
Zachary Karabell 
ISBN-10: 0807123072 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0807123412 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780807123072 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780807123416 (paper)
Louisiana State University Press, 1999

Civil and Uncivil Violence in Lebanon: A History of the Internationalization of Communal Conflict
Samir Khalaf
ISBN-10: 0231124767 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0231124775 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780231124768 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780231124775 (paper)
Columbia University Press, 2002

The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967-1976
Farid el Khazen
ISBN-10: 0674081056 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780674081055 (cloth)
Harvard University Press, 2000

Reproducing Sectarianism: Advocacy Networks and the Politics of Civil Society in Postwar Lebanon
Paul W. T. Kingston
ISBN-13: 9781438447117 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9781438447124 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9781438447131
State University of New York Press, 2013

Lebanon: After the Cedar Revolution
Are Knudsen, Michael Kerr, editors
ISBN-13: 9780199342969 (paper)
Oxford University Press, 2014

UN Peacekeeping in Lebanon, Somalia and Kosovo: Operational and Legal Issues in Practice
Ray Murphy
ISBN-13: 9780521843058 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 2007

The War for Lebanon, 1970–1985; Revised Edition
Itamar Rabinovich
ISBN-13: 9780801493133 (paper)
Cornell University Press, 1985

A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered
Kamal Salibi
ISBN-10: 0520071964 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520071964 (paper)
University of California Press, 1989

Reconstructing Beirut: Memory and Space in a Postwar Arab City
Aseel Sawalha
ISBN-13: 9780292721876 (cloth)
University of Texas Press, 2010

One Family’s Response to Terrorism: A Daughter’s Memoir
Susan Kerr van de Ven, With a Foreword by Saad Eddin Ibrahim
ISBN-13: 9780815608738 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780815609544 (paper)
Syracuse University Press, 2008

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The Shifts in Hizbullah’s Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program
Joseph Alagha
ISBN-10: 9053569103 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9789053569108 (paper)
Amsterdam University Press, 2006

Deadly Connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism
Daniel Byman 
ISBN-10: 0521839734 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780521839730 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 2005

All Glory Is Fleeting: Insights from the Second Lebanon War
Russell W. Glenn
RAND Corporation, 2012

In the Path of Hizbullah
A. Nizar Hamzeh
ISBN-10: 0815630530 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780815630531 (cloth)
Syracuse University Press, 2004

Hezbollah: Born with a Vengeance
Hala Jaber
ISBN-10: 0231108346 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780231108348 (cloth)
Columbia University Press, 1997

Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza
David E. Johnson
ISBN-13: 9780833058508 (paper)
RAND Corporation, 2011

Air Operations in Israel's War Against Hezbollah: Learning from Lebanon and Getting It Right in Gaza
Benjamin S. Lambeth
ISBN-13: 9780833051462 (paper)
RAND Corporation, 2011

Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God
Matthew Levitt
ISBN-13: 9781626160132 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9781626160149
Georgetown University Press, 2013

Hezbollah: A Short History
Augustus Richard Norton
ISBN-13: 9780691141077 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2009

My Life Is a Weapon: A Modern History of Suicide Bombing
Christoph Reuter
ISBN-10: 0691117594 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0691126151 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691117591 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691126159 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2006

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Lebanon’s Society & Culture

     Religious and Ethnic Groups
     Art, Language, and Literature

Lebanon’s Society & Culture: Religious and Ethnic Groups

The Vanished Imam: Musa al Sadr and the Shia of Lebanon
Fouad Ajami
ISBN-13: 9780801494161 (paper)
Cornell University Press, 1986

The Druze
Robert Brenton Betts
ISBN-10: 0300048106 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300048100 (paper)
Yale University Press, 1990

Islam: A Thousand Years of Faith and Power
Jonathan Bloom, Sheila Blair
ISBN-10: 0300094221 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300094220 (paper)
Yale University Press, 2001

Compassionate Communalism: Welfare and Sectarianism in Lebanon
Melani Cammett
ISBN-13: 9780801452321 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780801478932 (paper)
Cornell University Press, May 2014

The Invisible Cage: Syrian Migrant Workers in Lebanon
John Chalcraft
ISBN-13: 9780804758253 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780804758260 (paper)
Stanford University Press, 2009

Shi’ism and Social Protest
Juan R. I. Cole, Nikki R. Keddie
ISBN-10: 0300035535 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300035537 (paper)
Yale University Press, 1986

An Enchanted Modern: Gender and Public Piety in Shi'i Lebanon
Lara Deeb
ISBN-10: 0691124205 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0691124213 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780691124209 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691124216 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2006

Leisurely Islam: Negotiating Geography and Morality in Shi'ite South Beirut
Lara Deeb, Mona Harb
ISBN-13: 9780691153650 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780691153667 (paper)
ISBN eBook: 9781400848560
Princeton University Press, 2013

Fertile Bonds: Bedouin Class, Kinship, and Gender in the Bekaa Valley
Suzanne E. Joseph
ISBN-13: 9780813044613 (cloth)
University Press of Florida, 2013

Understanding Shiite Leadership: The Art of the Middle Ground in Iran and Lebanon
Shaul Mishal, Ori Goldberg
ISBN-13: 9781107046382 (cloth)
ISBN eBook: 9781139899345
Cambridge University Press, May 2014

Reaching For Power: The Shi'a in the Modern Arab World
Yitzhak Nakash 
ISBN-13: 9780691134789 (paper)
Princeton University Press, 2007

Everyday Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam among Palestinians in Lebanon
Bernard Rougier, Translated by Pascale Ghazaleh
ISBN-13: 9780674030664 (paper)
Harvard University Press, 2007

Shi'ite Lebanon: Transnational Religion and the Making of National Identities
Roschanack Shaery-Eisenlohr
ISBN-13: 9780231144261 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780231144278 (paper)
Columbia University Press, 2008

Nationalism and Minority Identities in Islamic Societies
Maya Shatzmiller
ISBN-10: 0773528474 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0773528482 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780773528475 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780773528482 (paper)
McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005

Memorials and Martyrs in Modern Lebanon
Lucia Volk
ISBN-13: 9780253355232 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780253222305 (paper)
Indiana University Press, 2010

In the Shadow of Sectarianism: Law, Shi’ism, and the Making of Modern Lebanon
Max Weiss
ISBN-13: 9780674052987 (cloth)
Harvard University Press, 2010

Lebanon’s Society & Culture: Art, Language, and Literature

Children of the Roojme: A Family's Journey from Lebanon
Elmaz Abinader
ISBN-10: 0299157342 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780299157340 (paper)
University of Wisconsin Press, 1997

Disciples of Passion
Hoda Barakat, translated by Marilyn Booth,
ISBN-10: 0815608330 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780815608332 (cloth)
Syracuse University Press, 2005

The Art and Architecture of Islam, 1250–1800
Sheila Blair, Jonathan Bloom
ISBN-10: 0300064659 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300064650 (paper)
Yale University Press, 1996

War's Other Voices: Women Writers on the Lebanese Civil War
Miriam Cooke
ISBN-10: 0521341922 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780521341929 (cloth)
Cambridge University Press, 1988

Memory for Forgetfulness: August, Beirut, 1982
Mahmoud Darwish, Ibrahim Muhawi, translator
ISBN-10: 0520087682 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780520087682 (paper)
University of California Press, 1995

Autumn Equinox
Jabbour Douaihy, translated by Nay Hannawi
ISBN-10: 1557287074 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9781557287076 (paper)
University of Arkansas Press, 2001

Levantine Arabic for Non-Natives: A Proficiency-Oriented Approach, Student Book
Lutfi Hussein
ISBN-10: 0300056346 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780300056341 (paper)
Yale University Press, 1993

Standing by the Ruins: Elegiac Humanism in Wartime and Postwar Lebanon
Ken Seigneurie
ISBN-13: 9780823234820 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780823234837 (paper)
Fordham University Press, 2011

Lebanon: Poems of Love and War, Bilingual Edition
Nadia Tuéni, edited by Christophe Ippolito, translated by Paul B. Kelley and Sam Hazo,
ISBN-10: 0815630905 (cloth)
ISBN-10: 0815608160 (paper)
ISBN-13: 9780815630906 (cloth)
ISBN-13: 9780815608165 (paper)
Syracuse University Press, 2005

Canceled Memories: A Novel
Nazik Saba Yared, Translated from the Arabic by Nadine Sinno
ISBN-13: 9780815609377 (cloth)
Syracuse University Press, 2009

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In the agreement, signed in the midst of World War I, Sir Mark Sykes of Britain and Georges Picot of France agreed to divvy up a post-war Middle East after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire. Although their victory was anything but assured when the two governments entered the pact in 1916, the Sykes-Picot Agreement granted France and Britain huge swaths of land that stretched from deep into what would become modern Turkey all the way west to Iraq and south into the Arabian Peninsula along the Persian Gulf.

But in their war against the Ottoman Turks, the allies had rallied, inspired and armed Arab chiefs who were more interested in freeing themselves from the yoke of the aged empire in Turkey than in carving out new spheres of influence for the European powers. The British in particular worked with the Hashemite king and his sons, including Prince Faisal, to battle the Turks.

Faisal, aided by the dashing and Romanticized British officer T.E. Lawrence, drove his soldiers deep into Ottoman territory and seized Damascus in 1918. British forces, and the French who were meant to control Syria under the Sykes-Picot pact, were largely absent from Damascus from 1918 through much of 1920. Once freed from Ottoman control, Arab nationalists flocked to the oasis city, fueling a growing desire to be free of all foreign influence. The move toward an independent state finally took the critical step in June 1919.

“The orientation of the General Syrian Congress was revealed as soon as it met in mid-1919, by its call for a completely independent Greater Syria that would include all of the area that is occupied today by Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel,” David Fromkin wrote in his study of the creation of the modern Middle East, A Peace to End All Peace.

Faisal, as leader of this government, was in Paris for much of 1919, trying to persuade the war-time victors to honor the vague pledges of Arab independence made during the Great War. But his case drew little support from any of the gathered powers and in the end both France and Britain insisted the Sykes-Picot agreement would stand.

Dreams of an empire defeated
Greater Syria was dismembered by the two powers, with France taking Lebanon and Syria and Britain gaining sway in Iraq, Jordan and what was called at the time Palestine. Faisal was ousted by the French, who seized Damascus in 1920, and sent into exile. Eventually the prince would lead a nation, installed by the British as King of Iraq as they moved to pull their troops out.

But for Arab nationalists, many of whom still made their home in Damascus, the Sykes-Picot agreement was a betrayal by the West that denied the dream of a Pan-Syrian state.

It is this ideal, many analysts have written, that has driven much of Syria’s foreign policy for more than 80 years.

“The division of Greater Syria after World War I proved one of the worst of many political traumas experienced in the Middle East at that time,” wrote Daniel Pipes in his book “Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition.” “Pan-Syrianism explains many of the conflicting aspirations among Syrians, Lebanese, Palestinians, Israelis and Jordanians; it lies behind much of the volatility of public life in Jordan and Syria; and it partially accounts for the Lebanese civil war and the Arab-Israeli conflict. The goal of piecing Syria’s parts together drove Jordanian foreign policy for over two decades, and it had nearly as great a role in Iraq.”

The political ferment also made ruling Syria difficult for the French. Repeatedly after 1920, French forces bombed Damascus and battled insurgents who loathed their rule. By 1946, under international pressure to leave and badly weakened by World War II, the French withdrew.

But what followed in Syria was decades of political turmoil and chaos. The long Ottoman and French occupations had unified the country and allowed deep political and societal differences to be papered over. The first president after French rule, Shukri al-Quwatli, governed over a deeply fractured parliament and at a troubled time.

His leadership was constantly contested and he is reported to have warned Egyptian leader Gamal Abdul Nasser on the eve of the Syrian-Egyptian union in 1958 that the Syrian state was nearly ungovernable.

“You have no idea, Mr. President, of the immensity of the task entrusted to you,” al-Quwalti is said to have told Nasser. “You have just become a leader of a people all of whom think they are politicians, half of whom think they are national leaders, one quarter that they are prophets, and one tenth that they are gods. Indeed, you will be dealing with a people whom worship God, Fire and the Devil.”

Al-Quwalti would lead the country for less than two years, ousted after Syrian forces were unable to destroy the newly created Israel and the domestic economy foundered.

A short-lived United Arab Republic
What emerged in Syria was a series of either weak civilian governments or military strongmen punctuated by coups and countercoups. It was during this tumultuous time that leftist radical parties began to flourish. The Syrian Baathist Party, a left-leaning party that aimed to create a pan-Arab state, rose to power and by 1957 controlled the government.

As part of their effort to create a single Arab state, the Baathists entered into talks with Egypt about the creation of a United Arab Republic and on Feb. 1, 1958, the two countries merged.

“The form in which the UAR emerged was not what the Baathists had envisioned,” the Library of Congress wrote in a study of Syria. “One of Nasser’s conditions for union was that the two countries be completely integrated, not just federated as the Syrians proposed, and Syria soon found itself dominated by the stronger, more efficient Egypt.”

Nasser tightened his control over Syria, dissolving all political parties and placing Egyptian officers in charge of Syrian troops. Growing dissatisfaction culminated in a 1961 military coup that ousted the provisional leaders and allowed Syria to secede from the UAR.

The country again descended into an increasingly bloody cycle of coups, political disorder and street protests as the Baathist Party once again seized control, but then split in bitter feuding between the more radical civilian branch of the government and the moderate military.

The reign of Hafez Assad
Defeat in the 1967 war with Israel left the Syrian government deeply unpopular, with many in the streets of Damascus calling for new leadership, and further strained the ties between the civilian Baathists and the military branch of the party.

Infighting culminated in a disastrous military confrontation with neighboring Jordan. Jordan’s King Hussein ordered his military in September 1970 to attack Palestinian refugee camps in his country where Palestinian militants were working to depose he and other Arab monarchs. The civilian government in Damascus dispatched some 200 tanks to aid the Palestinians. Syrian Minister of Defense, Hafez Assad, refused to dispatch the Syrian air force to aid the tanks, undermining the civilian government, and the Jordanians quickly defeated the Syrian/Palestinian forces.

The fiasco further undercut the support of the civilian government and helped lead two months later to a final military coup where much of the civilian government was arrested, a coup which propelled Assad to the position of prime minister.

Assad quickly centralized control, deftly bridging the dicey ethnic and religious differences within Syria. He modeled the state as a marginally Islamic, but largely secular one. He appealed to the Sunni majority, but was careful to include the smaller ethnicities.

The long-time ruler also walked a fine line between aiding more radical Islamic groups who supported his effort against Israel and combating the more fundamental interpretations of Islam put forward by the government of Iran and other clerics.

Even while allowing the Sunni political parties to maintain their religious nature, he was clear in “rejecting every uncultured interpretation of Islam that lays bare an odious narrow-mindedness and a loathsome bigotry, Islam being the religion of love, progress, social justice and equality for all.”

Assad would dominate the country, crafting a stable government for more than 30 years and guiding his nation in a stridently independent policy during a tumultuous time in the Middle East.

“The reign of Hafiz al-Assad lasted until his death in 2000; that is, it was longer than the period that had elapsed between the country’s independence and his accession,” Yasin al-Haj Saleh wrote in a study of modern Syria. “For this reason, the state-monopolized media always focus on the political stability that marked the reign of Hafiz al-Assad, contrasting it with the days of continuous coups and instability.”


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